Historical documents, which are one type of proxy data, can contain a wealth of information about past climates.


However, eruptions that are not recorded in historical documents can seldom be dated exactly.In science, it is sometimes necessary to study a variable which cannot be measured directly.This can be done by "proxy methods," in which a variable which correlates with the variable of interest is measured, and then used to infer the value of the variable of interest.Here we use annually resolved radiocarbon (C peak in a subfossil birch tree that was buried by a glacial outburst flood in southern Iceland.We employ this absolute time marker to date a subglacial eruption of Katla volcano at late 822 CE to early 823 CE.

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